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By Carlos Quiles - Fernando Lopez-Menchero

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The burials were covered with a mound, a kurgan. During this period, from 3600 till 3000 IE II split up into Pre-IE III and Pre-Proto-Anatolian. C on, Late PIE dialects began to differentiate and spread by 2500 westward (Europe’s Indo-European), southward (Proto-Greek) and eastward (Proto-Aryan, Pre-ProtoTocharian). org/> 1. Introduction NOTE. On the Kurgan hypothesis, Mallory & Adams (2006) say that “[t]he opposite method to a retrospective approach is a prospective approach where one starts with a given archaeological phenomenon and tracks its expansion.

PIE *H2, the a-colouring laryngeal: *h2a→a, *h2e→a, *h2o→a; *ah2→ā, *eh2→ā. • PIE *H3, the o-colouring laryngeal: h3e→o, h3o→o; eh3→ō, oh3→ō. • Often, but not always, interconsonantal H → a; as, *ph2tḗr → patḗr (cf. PII pitr). • PIH *r̥H→r̥̄, *l̥H→l̥̄, *n̥H→n̥̄, *m̥H→m̥̄; also, iH→ī, uH→ū. • PIH *H before consonants → EIE Ø; cf. PIE *h1dent-, EIE dentis (cf. PGk odōnts), “tooth”; PIE *h2stér-, EIE stḗr (cf. PGk astḗr), etc. NOTE. e. ” For clarity purposes, Common PIE is taken in this book as example for the phonology of early dialects, but enough certainty in vocalism (for language revival purposes) is to be found only in EIE, PGk and PII; exact regularity or congruence of a common Proto-IndoEuropean phonology is neither necessary nor searched for, as there are many variations in the laryngeal theories proposed by scholars, who reconstruct from just one (Szemerényi) to eight (Puhvel) or nine (Adrados); a general reconstruction of three laryngeals is used here for its simplicity and wide acceptance today.

Which places the Homeland in the contact zone between Caucasian and Semitic peoples, south of the Caucasus, is based on real or supposed lexical loans; it disregards morphological data altogether, too. ”. II. Another hypothesis, contrary to the European ones, also mainly driven today by a nationalistic view, traces back the origin of PIE to Vedic Sanskrit, postulating that it is very pure, and that the origin of common Proto-Indo-European can thus be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization of ca.

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