By Joseph Gerard Brennan

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Additional resources for A handbook of logic

Example text

In this way, the existential import of the I and 0 propositions will be shown in contrast to the A and E, which do not assert the existence of members of their subject classes: A. All basilisks glare. For all x, if x is a basilisk, then x glares. E. No unicorns eat oats. For all x, if x is a unicorn, x does not eat oats. 1. Some naiads are sorority sisters. There is at least one x such that x is a naiad and a sorority sister. O. Some dragons do not breathe fire. There is at least one x such that x is a dragon and does not breathe fire.

Identify the inferences as valid or invalid. Assume all classes have at least one member. I. Bushbabies are woolly. Those that lack the property of woolliness also lack the property of being bush babies. 2. Some jazzmen are cool. Some who are cool are not nonjazzmen. 3. Republicans are not rascals. Some non-Republicans are rascals. 4. Hammerhead sharks wear false teeth. Some non wearers of false teeth are not hammerhead sharks. 5. Some unicorns are registered. Some who are nonregistered are nonumcorns.

Here is an example of a violation of this rule: Some cocktails are too sweet. Some mixed drinks are cocktails . '. Some mixed drinks are too sweet. We note that this syllogism also violates an earlier rule, since the middle term is twice undistributed. Thus, it commits the fallacy of the undistributed middle as well as that of the two particular premises. 7. If one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative. An example of a violation of this rule would be: No hats are viola players. All bats bite toes .