By Valentin Igochine
During the prior century, world-wide strength intake has risen dramatically, which results in a quest for brand spanking new strength resources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in scorching plasmas is an enticing method of remedy the strength challenge, with ample gasoline, inherent safeguard and no long-lived radioactivity. although, one of many limits on plasma functionality is because of a number of the sessions of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities which can take place. The physics and keep an eye on of those instabilities in smooth magnetic confinement fusion units is the topic of this ebook. Written by way of greatest specialists, the contributions will offer beneficial reference and updated study studies for "old fingers" and rookies alike.
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Additional info for Active Control of Magneto-hydrodynamic Instabilities in Hot Plasmas
18). This is shown schematically in the Fig. 18. In tokamak geometry, the length of the flux tube at the low field side is proportional to the major radius and safety factor: L $ qR . 22). This force can be estimated as follows: 44 V. Igochine À Á ~ B B2/ B2/ BÁr ~ ¼ ; Fm ¼ $ l0 L qR ð2:46Þ and the corresponding change in energy due to the displacement of the flux tube n is dWm ¼ Z ~ ndV $ Fm Á ~ B2/ qR n: ð2:47Þ This energy should be sufficient to compensate the destabilizing pressure contribution.
There are also other factors which influence the density limits; for example, plasma triangularity has been found to be important in determining the density at which confinement begins to drop. This is probably connected to the pedestal stability, which depends on the plasma shape. There are several ideas which try to explain the mechanism for the onset of the density limit. A. Gates and L. Delgado-Aparicio assumes that the onset of the density limit is the same as the onset criterion for radiation-driven islands.
As discussed before, plasma electrons are continuously accelerated by the toroidal electric field. If an electron gains more energy per toroidal turn than it loses by collisions in low density plasma, it does not transfer the energy to the plasma ions anymore. Operation close to this limit is not very interesting for two reasons: • the fusion reactor requires higher density operation for higher fusion performance, which is not the case in this regime; • the lost electrons may cause damage of the first wall.