By Monique L'Huillier
This reference grammar combines the simplest of contemporary and standard ways. Its aim is not just functional mastery of the language, yet familiarity with its constitution. The Grammar takes complete account of contemporary linguistic study, yet with out over the top emphasis on formalism. It presents quite a few examples in accordance with the author's personal event of educating French to English audio system. The norms of "correct expression" are given including present utilization and deviations. a considerable index of French and English phrases and of issues offers easy accessibility to the textual content itself.
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Additional resources for Advanced French Grammar
C’est notre professeur de français. Il y a dix kilos d’abricots à la cave. C’est pour faire ma conﬁture. When they are associated with qui and que, these presentative forms can also be used to perform a focalization with a cleft construction (see below). Whatever its function, the NP is detached and normally placed at the beginning of that sentence. It is introduced by the forms c’est, voilà, il y a and then repeated by the relative pronouns qui or que (or, less frequently, dont). Thus presentative forms can be used to focus on: – the subject: Ex: L’argent fait tourner le monde.
Direct object Il apprend à jouer au tennis. 4 above, the above examples show that even with the same meaning, a verb is not limited to one particular construction. 6 Bitransitive verbs ( verbes bitransitifs) The verb can be followed by a direct object + indirect object, or two indirect objects (the second one is also called complément d’attribution or complément d’objet second). Hence: VP = V + NP/E + PP or (i) V + PP + PP V + NP + PP – The PP can be introduced by de. For instance: équiper qn de qch recevoir qch de qn charger qn de qch penser qch de qn couvrir qn/qch de qch dire qch de qn menacer qn de qch éloigner qn/qch de qn/qch remplir qch de qch entourer qn/qch de qch Ex: Nous allons entourer le jardin de haies.
There are also incomplete sentences. These complements are basically noun phrases (or equivalent) and may be very similar to the noun phrase subject. plus – sentence adverbs or adverb phrases (compléments circonstanciels). Hence there are three basic constituents in the simple sentence (S): S = NP/E + VP + [sentence adverbs]. Note: – the NP/E and VP are usually present – sentence adverbs are optional – the order ‘NP/E + VP + sentence adverbs’ is the norm, but there are numerous exceptions. 20 2 SYNTAX AND GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS There are four modalities of the sentence: – declarative – interrogative – exclamative – imperative In turn, all these are either positive (afﬁrmative) or negative.