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By Richard Kraut

This publication bargains a scientific assessment of Aristotle's notion of healthiness, advantage and justice within the Nicomachean Ethics, after which explores the main issues of Politics: civic-mindedness, slavery, relatives, estate, the typical stable, classification clash, the constrained knowledge of the multitude, and the greatly egalitarian associations of the suitable society.

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The final goal of the world, we said, is Spirit’s consciousness of its freedom, and hence also the actualization of that very freedom. This, then, is what characterizes the spiritual world—and this there­ fore is the substantially real world, to which the physical world is subordinate (or, to say this in speculative terms, the physical world has no truth as against the spiritual). But this “freedom,” as so far described, is itself indefinite and infinitely ambiguous. As the highest of concepts it carries with it infinitely many misunderstandings, confusions and errors, and comprises all possible excesses within it.

Without having grasped the thing itself in its positive aspect. Generally, the critic mellows with age; youth is always dissatisfied. That mellowness of age is a ripeness of judgment—which not only accepts the bad, through disinterestedness, but is also led to what is substantial and solid in the matter in question by having been instructed more deeply by the seriousness of life. The insight to which philosophy ought to lead, therefore (in contrast to what happens to those ideals), is that the real world is as it ought to be, that the truly good, the universal divine Reason is also the power capable of actualizing itself.

In spite of this, however (or rather in order for us to grasp the universal aspect in this mode of Spirit’s concrete reality), we must set forth, before all else, some abstract definitions of the nature of Spirit. These can, of course, be no more than mere assertions here. This is not the place to go into the Idea of Spirit in a speculative fashion, for what can be said in an intro­ duction is simply to be taken historically—as a presupposition which (as we said) has either been worked out and proven elsewhere, or else is to receive its verification only as the outcome of the science of history itself.

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