By George M. Hidy
Atmospheric Sulfur and Nitrogen Oxides presents a radical synthesis of the examine on atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen oxide chemistry on geographically huge scales, with targeted emphasis at the tools and problems of building source-receptor relationships. The e-book addresses the significance of long-range air delivery, the position of ozone and oxidant chemistry, and it examines analytical tools and pollutant delivery versions. this article particularly covers
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Additional info for Atmospheric Sulfur and Nitrogen Oxides. Eastern North American Source-Receptor Relationships
They are larger in summer than in winter. NAPAP (1990a) reviews natural sources over ENA. Natural HCs or VOCs are emitted from both terrestrial and marine sources. Most reactive are terpene compounds from trees and brush. Biogenic methane (CH4) is by far the most prevalent natural hydrocarbon species in the air, but is far less reactive than other components. There is a continuing debate about natural HC emissions and production of regional 0 3 in ENA. However, most estimates suggest that anthropogenic HC levels are generally higher than natural HC concentrations in cities, probably dominating oxidant production in urban areas.
The geographic distri41 42 3. 1 1985 S0 2 emissions distribution in eastern North America (kilotonne per 127 km x 127 km) grid cell. ) butions of SOx and NO* are similar in ENA. In the United States, about 90% of the 1985 SO* emissions were concentrated east of the Mississippi. 1 The SOx and NOx emissions in ENA are also similar in density and size to those found in western Europe. There are also emissions of sulfur components and nitrogen oxides, as well as reactive hydrocarbons, from natural sources throughout ENA.
Although SO4" represents a large fraction of the fine particles, total organic noncarbonate carbon (TONC) and other unidentified compounds also represent large mass fractions of sampled particles. The unidentified constituents are believed to be largely soil dust, metal salts, or metal oxide debris and condensed or adsorbed water. The fraction apportioned to soil dust and to heavy metals is identified in work of Ferman et al. (1981) and Stevens et al. (1984).