By Maria C. Linder
Copper has lengthy been often called necessary to residing platforms, partially via its primary function in electron shipping and breathing. through the years into the current, its involvement in an ever expanding variety of approaches in all types of organisms has turn into obvious, and new and fascinating vistas of its roles in such components because the relevant worried method, and in humoral capabilities, are showing at the horizon. even though the biochemistry of this point has now not been studied approximately up to that of many others, a for midable quantity of labor has been performed. It has therefore been a problem to provide a precis of what has been came upon that gives either breadth and intensity. My target has been to aim to be as complete as attainable, inside a few boundaries. i've got attempted to supply easy details and uncomplicated facts that are meant to stay beneficial for a very long time. The aim has additionally been to interpret the place we at the moment stand in our wisdom of the constitution, functionality, legislation, and metabolism of Cu-dependent methods and sub stances, specifically proteins. hence, i've got attempted to make this a resource publication for historical in addition to present info on all elements of copper bio chemistry, and a precis of our present wisdom of copper-dependent proteins and methods. lots of the study on copper has been performed on vertebrates, specifically mammals. This has performed a task within the association of the book.
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Additional resources for Biochemistry of Copper
F 305± 26 (16)' "Data from Fischer eta/. (1981); means±SE(N). ot for difference from 7 and 30 ppm Zn. 01 for difference from 7 ppm Zn only. d Measured with everted duodenal segments incubated in Waymouth medium containing 6 flS of Cu/ml (mean of 9-12 determinations). Transport is overall release across the intestinal segment at the end of incubation. was first noted by Hall et a/. (1979). Their data are shown in Fig. 2-3. Within the mucosal cell, most of the newly absorbed Cu is associated with the cytosol and, except at very low zinc intake (see below), with metallothionein.
This was also observed by Neumann and Silverberg (1966), who reported that histidine (4-12 11M) stimulated uptake of 64Cu (10 11M) by rat liver or kidney slices (or by Ehrlich ascites tumor cells) when incubated in a Krebs-Ringer medium containing 4% albumin. 5 g/dl. Also, the absence of an oxygen atmosphere had little effect on copper uptake recorded in the absence of amino acids but profoundly inhibited (in fact, more or less abolished) the stimulatory effect of the added amino acids. 8 x 10"4 M) had no effect on uptake measured in the absence or presence of extra amino acids, implying that the oxygen dependency of the amino acid stimulatory effect (if indeed it is reproducible) is not mediated by intracellular ATP availability.
Ogiso eta/. 0 for ileum. These are not dissimilar to values found in our laboratory for the duodenum of female Fischer rats (Table 2-11 ). Ogiso et a/. found that a high-zinc diet ( 1% by weight for 8 days) significantly depressed all of the whole-wall values. What is not known is whether this decrease was confined to the nonmucosal cell portion of the intestinal (or gastric) wall or was also in the mucosal cells. Table 2-11 shows that the nonmucosal portion of the intestine, which must receive copper after its transfer from mucosal cells into the blood and interstitial fluid, can indeed have a quite different copper content from that in the 38 Chapter 2 Table 2-11.