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By M. Gooz

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Calcification seems to be a part of the natural development of atherosclerotic plaques, with extensive calcification associated with late-stage atherosclerosis. In the general population, atherosclerotic plaque calcification is associated with cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, symptomatic angina pectoris, and stroke. Medial calcification causes arterial stiffness, resulting in an elevated pulse pressure and increased pulse wave velocity, thereby contributing to left ventricular hypertrophy, dysfunction, and heart failure.

1998). 6 mmol/l, with a minimal, diurnal variation. In patients with CKD, serum calcium levels fluctuate more, because of altered homeostasis and concomitant therapies. Serum calcium levels are routinely measured in clinical laboratories using colorimetric methods in automated machines. In patients with CKD stage 5D, there are additional fluctuations in association with dialysis-induced changes, hemoconcentration, and subsequent hemodilution. , 2008). It has been shown that the serum calcium level is a poor reflection of overall total body calcium.

2 Role of extrinsic cells in kidney damage Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the glomeruli and the renal interstitium is the hallmark of glomerulosclerosis and tubuloiterstitial fibrosis. Severity and Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease 19 Platelets and coagulation: Platelets and their release products within the damaged glomeruli stimulate a coagulation cascade which activate the mesangial cells to induce sclerosis. Thrombin stimulates glomerular TGF-β1 leading to production of mesangial ECM and inhibition of metalloproteinases.

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