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This indicates that the classes are what are known as abstract classes. An abstract class is one which cannot have an instance – a ‘real-life’ example (see the section on object diagrams in Chapter 4 for a discussion of instances) but which still exists as a valid concept. 17, this means that there are no examples of things that are just mammals, or animals or life forms, etc. You could not go into a pet shop and buy a ‘mammal’ because ‘mammal’ is an abstract concept; rather you would have to buy a cat or dog or rabbit, etc.

Views must be consistent – they must form part of a model and not be just a set of pictures. Solutions are a great and necessary part of EA, but bear in mind that all solutions lend themselves to particular problems. And simply applying bigger solutions (fly, spider, bird, cat, dog, goat, cow and horse) is not necessarily the best approach. Also, it should be remembered that whatever solution you throw at a problem, it will come with its own set of required resources. It is all too easy to end up with a house full of dead bodies, hay and horse dung.

The second way that complexity is illustrated is through the concept of the ‘brontosaurus of complexity’. 5). This fits with the shape of the brontosaurus that is ‘thin at one end, much much thicker in the middle, and then thin again at the far end ’ [2]. 5 A brontosaurus complexity of a project is almost always low to begin with, but balloons during the analysis of a project, as the understanding of the full impact of the requirements and the constraints is fully understood. By the time the problem is fully understood, then a project is well-and-truly in the ‘belly of the brontosaurus’, whereas when the design begins and becomes optimised, then the project should be heading towards the ‘tail of the brontosaurus’.

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