By Taoufik Bourdi
Lately, instant LAN criteria have emerged available in the market. these criteria function in quite a few frequency levels. to minimize part count number, it really is of value to layout a multi-mode frequency synthesizer that serves all instant LAN criteria together with 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g criteria. With various requirements for these criteria, designing integer-based phase-locked loop frequency synthesizers cannot be accomplished. Fractional-N frequency synthesizers supply the answer required for a standard multi-mode neighborhood oscillator. these fractional-N synthesizers are in accordance with delta-sigma modulators which together with a divider yield the fractional department required for the specified frequency of interest.In CMOS unmarried Chip quickly Frequency Hopping Synthesizers for instant Multi-Gigahertz purposes, the authors define unique layout technique for quick frequency hopping synthesizers for RF and instant communications functions. nice emphasis on fractional-N delta-sigma dependent section locked loops from standards, approach research and structure making plans to circuit layout and silicon implementation.The publication describes a good layout and characterization method that has been built to check loop trade-offs in either open and shut loop modelling recommendations. this is often in keeping with a simulation platform that includes either behavioral versions and measured/simulated sub-blocks of the selected frequency synthesizer. The platform predicts properly the section noise, spurious and switching functionality of the ultimate layout. as a result first-class part noise and spurious functionality should be accomplished whereas assembly the entire certain specifications. The layout method reduces the necessity for silicon re-spin permitting circuit designers to without delay meet rate, functionality and agenda milestones.The constructed wisdom and strategies were utilized in the profitable layout and implementation of 2 excessive velocity multi-mode fractional-N frequency synthesizers for the IEEE 801.11a/b/g criteria. either synthesizer designs are defined in info.
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Extra resources for Cmos Single Chip Fast Frequency Hopping Synthesizers For Wireless Multi-Gigahertz Applications
E. locking condition). The settling of the loop is best viewed by monitoring the tuning voltage that reaches its desired value as illustrated in the figure. The synthesized VCO frequency and its correspondent local oscillator frequency are both shown to reach their respective values within 7 µs. 5 µs the ∆–Σ fully settles and the effect of the initial seed disappears completely, hence increasing the modulator activity.
SPICE). A complication that arises in the CP PLL is the aliasing effect caused by the periodic switching of the CP current. In lock, the CP has a duty cycle determined by delays in the phase detector, leakage in the loop filter, and other systematic design choices. While periodic noise simulations should be used to accurately estimate the net noise power spectrum coupled into the loop filter, in some cases a good approximation is obtained by attenuating the CP current noise by the (average) duty cycle of the CP pulses.
In this monograph, the noise source is placed after the functional transfer function of the subblock. Φr ICP _ Σ Φvco Vf Ipd 1/R F(s) Kv Σ 1/s Σ Σ Φout Σ 1/N Φn Figure 3-10. Noise Contributions in the Phase-Locked Loop System Table 3-3. Gain and Noise Terms and their Units Gain terms Reference Divider R Charge pump Gain ICP Loop filter Z(s) VCO tuning gain KVCO PLL feedback Divider N Gain units No units Amps/rad Ω rad/V No units Noise terms Reference oscillator Phase noise Φr Charge pump Current noise Ipd Loop filter Voltage noise Vf VCO phase Noise ΦVCO Feedback Divider phase Noise Φn Output phase Noise Φout Noise units rad-rms or radrms/√Hz Amps or Amps/√Hz Volt or Volt/√Hz rad-rms or radrms/√Hz rad-rms or radrms/√Hz rad-rms or radrms/√Hz The notations used in Figure 3-10 are listed below.