By Ivan Djordjevic
Coding for Optical Channels
In order to evolve to the ever-increasing calls for for high-speed transmission and distance-independent connectivity, today’s community operators are enforcing a hundred Gb/s in keeping with dense wavelength department multiplexing (DWDM) channel. At these facts charges, the functionality of fiber-optic communique platforms is degraded considerably because of intra- and inter-channel fiber nonlinearities, polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), and chromatic dispersion. with a purpose to take care of those channel impairments, novel complex thoughts in modulation, detection, coding and sign processing are wanted.
This groundbreaking booklet represents a coherent and finished creation to the basics of optical communications, electronic sign processing (DSP), and coding for optical channels. This book:
- Is the 1st to combine the basics of coding concept and DSP with the basics of optical communication;
- Provides special assurance of joint coding and modulation for optical communications;
- Presents faster equalization for joint iterative channel equalization and gentle deciphering on optical channels;
- Provides in-depth assurance of codes on graphs, together with LDPC and rapid codes, and describes their program to optical channels;
- Includes insurance of either fiber-optics and free-space optical (FSO) channels;
- Is the 1st to hide the channel capability of fiber-optic verbal exchange systems;
- Is the 1st to explain limited coding for optical channels.
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Additional resources for Coding for Optical Channels
N1 > n2 /, which is achieved by a mix of dopants commonly added to the fiber core. The refractive-index profile for stepindex fiber is shown in Fig. 10c, while the illustration of light confinement by the total internal reflection is shown in Fig. 10d. The ray will be totally reflected from the core–cladding interface (a guided ray) if the following condition is satisfied: n0 sin Â i < q n21 n22 ; where Â i is the angle of incidence. n1 n2 /=n1 . Therefore, from the geometrical optics point of view, light propagates in optical fiber due to series of total internal reflections that occur at the core–cladding interface.
Mizuochi T et al (2004) Forward error correction based on block turbo code with 3-bit soft decision for 10 Gb/s optical communication systems. IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron 10(2):376–386 42. Gallager RG (1963) Low density parity check codes. MIT, Cambridge, MA 43. Mizuochi T et al (2003) Next generation FEC for optical transmission systems. In: Proceedings of optical fiber communication conference (OFC 2003), vol 2, pp 527–528 44. Djordjevic IB, Milenkovic O, Vasic B (2005) Generalized low-density parity-check codes for optical communication systems.
The amplification factor G is defined as the ratio of amplifier output Pout and input Pin powers G D Pout =Pin . / D 1 C .! g0 ; ! 20) g is the gain coefficient, g0 is the gain peak value, ! <1 ps/, ! is the optical frequency of incident signal, P is the incident signal power, and PS is the saturation power. 22) is the FWHM gain coefficient bandwidth. Pump power a b Pump Fiber Weak signal Optical amplifier medium Amplified Fiber signal Pin N2 N1 Optical signal input Optical signal output z=0 Fig.