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By F.R. Walther

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Page 23 dressing, and the problem of the sender's aiming at a definite response of the recipient.  Thus, it happens quite frequently that the sender does not bring his entire body but only his head into a—frontal, lateral, or reverse—orientation toward the addressee according to the pars pro toto principle. , Cherry 1957) wish to acknowledge for animals.  1a.  (Walther 1978d.  I hardly see how these changes of the sender's orientation can be explained by the tropism theory.  Again, this "choice" is hard to explain by a tropism.

On the contrary, it was probably the other way around.  The subordinate withdraws (recipient's response), whereupon the dominant ceases his display (influence of the recipient's response on the sender's behavior). ) "softest" and easiest section by beginning with the last part. " In such and similar cases we may notice with a certain satisfaction that our definition is not applicable; it is precisely these eases which we wish to exclude from our discussion.  For the moment, it may be enough to say that such cases belong to the—in a sense outlined above—peripheral realms of communication.

As always, however, going around a problem does not make it disappear.  It is only when the other animal behaviorally emphasizes its presence that it may become a sender and a communication process may develop.  It seems to me that quite a number of authors speak of a "sender" or a "communicator,'' respectively, when they merely mean a producer.  Only in the latter case can one speak of a true communication. " In short, I think I only follow common usage when I speak of the sender of a message, the sender of a signal, etc, and I do not think that the concept of sending a message is incongruent with that of sharing the (contents of a) message between sender and recipient.

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