By Hans Lindquist
An available, hands-on advent to using digital corpora within the description and research of English. After introducing corpora and the reason at the back of corpus linguistics and describing the fundamental technique, Hans Lindquist offers a couple of case reviews that provide new insights approximately vocabulary, collocations, phrasing, metaphor, metonymy, syntactic constructions, female and male language, check in and elegance, and adjustments in language. every one bankruptcy positive aspects workouts and recommendations for extra studying. The ebook will entice scholars due to its transparent language and constitution, well-defined terminology, step by step directions, beneficiant and updated examples from varied types of English around the globe, and accompanying web-pages with extra routines and up to date learn relating freely available corpora. This booklet is aimed toward collage scholars of English on the intermediate point and is mainly compatible for college students making plans time period papers and longer tasks.
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Extra resources for Corpus Linguistics and the Description of English (Edinburgh Textbooks on the English Language - Advanced)
Most of them are fairly general and vague in meaning and can occur in a number of different contexts and phrases. ). 5, we see the most frequent adjectives. Few people would probably guess that other is the most frequent adjective in English, since for most of us prototypical adjectives are descriptive ones like the adjectives that come after other in the list: good, new, old etc. Referring to our question at the beginning, it turns out that large is 39% more frequent than big in the BNC (471 against 338 tokens per million words).
01. 2. Chi square compares the observed frequencies in each cell with the frequencies expected if the variants were evenly distributed (this is called the ‘null hypothesis’). The expected frequency has to be calculated for each cell. For but in 1990–1994 this is done in the following way: multiply the row total by the column total and then divide by the sum total: (8,909 × 4,853)/9,633 = 4,488. Next, the expected frequency for but in 2005–2007 is calculated in the same manner: 8,909 × 4,780/9,633 = 4,421.
5. Before computers and corpora, frequency counts had to be made by hand and were very laborious; now they can be made almost with a mouse click. The following tables are from frequency tables based on the contents of the 100 million word BNC, which are freely available on several different websites. 1 shows the fifty most frequent words in the corpus. The column ‘POS tag’ gives the part of speech (word class); a key is given below the table. 1 below. Note that some word forms occur several times, distinguished by different POS tags, like to, which is both an infinitive marker at rank 6 and a preposition at rank 10.