By A. N Schofield
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It can be measured by tracing the flow of dye injected into the water. Its average value depends on the unknown cross-sectional area of voids Av and equals Q/Avt. But ⎛ Q ⎞ ⎛ Q ⎞⎛ At ⎞ v v 1+ e ⎞ ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = va . 5) ⎟ vv n ⎝ e ⎠ ⎝ Av t ⎠ ⎝ At t ⎠⎝ Av ⎠ where Vt and Vv are the total volume of the sample and the volume of voids it contains, and n is the porosity. 62. va e It is general practice in all seepage calculations to use the artificial velocity va and total areas so that consistency will be achieved.
Approximate answers could be obtained from the following alternative methods: (a) Model experiment in the laboratory. A model of the riverbed is constructed in a narrow tank with glass or perspex sides which are perpendicular to the sheet pile. The different water levels on each side are kept constant, with the downstream level being just above the sandbed to ensure saturation. Probes are placed through these transparent sides at convenient positions, as for the permeameter, to record the excess pore-pressures and thereby indicate the equipotentials.
The results give the lower straight line OC, which terminates at C. Under this hydraulic gradient ic the upward drag on the particles imparted by the water is sufficient to lift their submerged weight, so that the particles float as a suspension and become a fluidized bed. This quicksand condition is also known as piping or boiling. At this critical condition the total drag upwards on the sand between the levels of A and B will be At δu = At γ wδh and this must exactly balance the submerged weight of this part of the sample, namely At γ ' δs.