By Alexis de Tocqueville
" J'avoue que dans l'Amérique j'ai vu plus que l'Amérique ; j'y ai cherché une picture de los angeles démocratie elle-même, de ses penchants, de son caractère, de ses préjugés, de ses passions ". los angeles gloire de Tocqueville n'est pas seulement celle d'un analyste politique exceptionnel ; c'est aussi, depuis l. a. récente redécouverte de son oeuvre, celle d'un philosophe politique qui serait en même temps un classique de los angeles sociologie, et qui pourrait aider à comprendre les problèmes qui se posent constamment dans les démocraties modernes. L'égalité des stipulations, l'individualisme, le despotisme démocratique, les relatives entre maîtres et serviteurs, l'esprit de liberté et l'esprit de faith, autant de notions qui dessinent aujourd'hui encore les contours d'une philosophie de los angeles démocratie.
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Extra resources for De la démocratie en Amérique
The philosopher Franz Bflhm sees in Lagarde the central defender of the Germanic spirit against Cartesian rationalism and optimism (cf. F. BOhm, Anti-Cartesianismus, Deutsche Philosophic im Widerstand (Leipzig, 1938), pp. , p. ). 48 And the situation of crisis which affected academics must have helped weaken the resis tance that normally accompanied their statutory contempt for fashionable essay writers. Thus, although professional historians displayed some reservations over Spengler’s methods, the most conservative among them at least were ready to welcome the vehemence of his conclusions.
This is a relation which is reproduced, in a specific form, in the relation of philosophy to the other disciplines. 7 Windelband, a professor at Heidelberg, later succeeded by Husserl, proffered a critique of Cohen’s leanings towards agnostic positivism which prefigures Heidegger’s arguments against the Kantian critique o f meta physics. ’ At the other extreme, Cohen and Cassirer stand out as the prestigious heirs of the great liberal tradition and of European Enlightenment humanism. 11 Because of the dominant position held by the various representatives of neo-Kantianism, the holders of the other important positions need to be defined in relation to them (or more precisely, in opposition to them), as well as in opposi tion to the various psychologies of empirical consciousness psychologism, vitalism, or empirico-criticism - which some of them seemed to encourage with their more or less dis torted transcendental analysis.
As Herman Lebovics notes, the sub-field constituted by the conservative ideologues has a right, represented by Spengler, and a left, or rather, a far right, represented, in two different guises which are at once close and antithetical, by Niekisch and JUnger. Both right and left of this conservative sub-field are enclosed within the wider field of ideological production; and its products, as witness the constant reference to liberalism and socialism, are (at least negatively) marked by the effect o f belonging to it.