By Wolfgang Maichen
As many circuits and functions now input the Gigahertz frequency variety, actual electronic timing measurements became the most important within the layout, verification, characterization, and alertness of digital circuits. to achieve success during this endeavour, an engineer wishes a data base overlaying instrumentation, size recommendations, sign integrity, jitter and timing techniques, and information. quite often even the main skilled electronic try out engineers, whereas gaining knowledge of a few of these topics, lack systematic wisdom or event within the excessive pace sign area.Digital Timing Measurements supplies a compact, practice-oriented review on all these topics. The emphasis is on useable options and real-life guidance that may be simply positioned into perform, with references to the underlying mathematical thought. It unites in a single position various info correct to excessive pace trying out, dimension, sign constancy, and instrumentation.
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Extra resources for Digital Timing Measurements
B) Optimum signal integrity, but increased routing space. 4 Differential Termination So far we have only talked about termination of single-ended signals. Differential signals add another layer of complexity to our considerations, because now we may have two, unequal characteristic impedances – one ( Z diff = 2 × Z odd ) for the differential component and one ( Z common = Z even 2 ) #1. 24 For the general case (Zdiff and Zcommon are different, for example for closely coupled lines on a PCB) several termination schemes are in use, shown in Figure 19, all based on resistive termination: The two most elaborate schemes (Figure 19(a) and (b)) use both a set of three resistors, and they can match both differential and common mode impedance.
However, there are some important differences between a simple ohmic resistor and a transmission line: First, the signal will arrive at the other end of the line only after the delay Tpd (while a resistor does not have any delay). Second, no energy is dissipated, but it is stored in the electric and magnetic fields along the line. Third, at the end of the line a reflection of the signal will occur; more precisely, reflections occur whenever there is a change in the impedance along the line (and the end of the line can be seen as a change to infinite impedance).
1 A Short Look at Analog Oscilloscopes Most engineers are already familiar with the functions and the operations of traditional analog oscilloscopes, and since those legacy instruments have very limited use in high-speed timing and jitter measurement, we will only have a very cursory look at them, and also cover only those properties and functions that have applications in those types of measurements. Figure 20 shows a high-level schematic view of a typical analog scope. The input signal is fed into an amplifier (or, for high signal amplitudes, into an attenuator).