By Paul J. Ponganis
Analysing the physiological variations of marine mammals and seabirds, this ebook offers a complete evaluation of what permits those species to beat the demanding situations of diving to intensity on a unmarried breath of air. via comparative studies of texts on diving body structure and behavior from the final seventy-five years, Ponganis combines this examine into one succinct quantity. Investigating the diving functionality of marine mammals and seabirds, this publication illustrates how physiological procedures to severe hypoxia and strain are suitable to the development of our figuring out of uncomplicated mobile tactics and human pathologies. This e-book underscores the biomedical and ecological relevance of the anatomical, physiological and molecular/biophysical variations of those animals to allow additional examine during this quarter. a big source for college students and researchers, this article not just presents a vital review of contemporary examine within the box, yet will stimulate additional learn into the behaviour and body structure of diving.
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Additional resources for Diving Physiology of Marine Mammals and Seabirds
Chrysocome moseleyi S. rockhopper penguin E. chrysocome ﬁlholi Macaroni penguin E. chrysolophus Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae Chinstrap penguin P. anarcticus Gentoo Penguin P. papua King penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus Emperor penguin A. , 2007. , 2011). , 2007). 10 Dive characteristics of other aquatic birds. , 1989b; P: Stephenson, 1994; Q: Furilla and Jones, 1987b; R: Woodin and Stephenson, 1998; S: Furilla and Jones, 1987a; T: Batulis and Bongiorno, 1972; U: Murrish, 1970. In terms of the surfacer–diver classiﬁcation, penguins are best considered divers.
Clearly, human breath-hold divers are not limited to 40 m depth. There are several explanations. First, as described above, trained divers may have a more compliant chest wall, and lower effective RV. Second, exceptional divers may have larger than normal TLCs due to body habitus (Schagatay, 2012). Third, due to compression of the body, blood is redistributed from the extremities into the thoracic cavity. This can be as much as 1–2 L of blood (Craig, 1968, Ferrigno and Lundgren, 2003). This increased intrathoracic blood volume thus occupies space as the lung is compressed below residual volume.
2008). among the group, with remarkable maximal dive durations and depths near 3–4 min and 138–210 m. 6). 7). 7 for references). The diving performances of the Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransﬁeldensis) and king cormorant (Phalacrocorax albiventer) are only slightly less. 8). Although not studied extensively, pelicans appear limited to near-surface activities. 8 Dive characteristics of the Pelecaniformes, excluding cormorants and shags (Phalacrocoracidae). All are marine birds except the African darter.